SAINT JOHN, New Brunswick, MONTREAL, FREDERICTON, New Brunswick, and QUEBEC CITY, June 13, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- J.D. Irving, Limited (JDI) is the major private sponsor of a partnership which includes Université Laval, Université de Montréal, the University of New Brunswick, and the provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec. This five-year project is focused on understanding possible impacts of winter ticks, climate change, and predation on moose populations.
FirstBank to Give $10 to Rainbow Alley for Every Specialty Lavender-Lemonade Pop Sold
Bombardier Transportation Inaugurates New Production Hall for Series Production in Saxony – Kick-off for Industry 4.0 at its Bautzen Site
BAUTZEN, Germany, June 15, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Note to editors: To view the photo associated with this press release, please visit the following link: http://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/aacf3727-1c60-408a-b2f6-3d00275e591bRail technology leader Bombardier Transportation inaugurated a new final assembly hall in Bautzen, Germany today with Saxony's Prime Minister, Michael Kretschmer, and Saxony's Minister of Economic Affairs, Martin Dulig, in attendance. Among the other guests were the Mayor of Bautzen, Alexander Ahrens, and Saxon State Parliament Representative, Marko Schiemann. Bombardier Transportation has invested around eight million euro in the final assembly hall and commissioned a large number of companies from Saxony.The new hall can produce up to 600 cars per-year. Its production spectrum ranges from regional and intercity trains to suburban and underground trains, and trams. Three different vehicle types can be produced at the same time and Bombardier Transportation's most advanced assembly hall in the world impresses with its increased use of digital technologies. It is also a prime example of efficiency. Compared to its predecessor, the new hall can save around one million euro per-year in terms of logistics, energy and maintenance costs. Around 500 employees have their ultra-modern workplace in the hall, which boasts a total 8,100 square metres of factory floorspace. Around 5,000 cubic meters of concrete and 1,300 tons of steel were used in the new building. In addition, around 24 kilometres of electrical cables were laid, and 568 lighting fixtures installed. When including the costs for the production hall, Bombardier has invested around 30 million euro in the Bautzen site.Prime Minister Michael Kretschmer said, “Today is a good day for Bautzen and Upper Lusatia. The investment now planned will secure 1,000 jobs here at Bombardier, and many more for the suppliers in the region. I am grateful to the company for its clear commitment. We have been through some difficult negotiations and some very uncertain times. I am very grateful to all those who supported the retention of the plants in both Bautzen and Görlitz. Now, the focus is on creating favourable prospects for the Görlitz plant as well, because the potential that exists there is not yet exhausted."“Today's hall inauguration will send a positive signal to the employees and represents an important step in repositioning and securing the two Saxony sites. The goal here is to set future standards for Industry 4.0 production in the railway industry. We want to bolster the initiative for more Industry 4.0 at Bombardier's Bautzen site, and ensure efficient logistics. This was announced exactly one year ago here by Federal Minister, Brigitte Zypries and myself, and we deliver on our promises. The Free State will support the new construction of the Spree Bridge, and the expansion of the municipal access road with development funds,” said Saxony's Minister of Economic Affairs, Martin Dulig.“The new hall and modern Industry 4.0 production mark the start of a new era at the traditional 170-year-old Bautzen site,” says Michael Fohrer, Head of Bombardier Transportation in Germany. “We are investing in, and establishing, a competence centre for the series production of regional and intercity trains as well as commuter and metro trains, and trams. These are powerful arguments for the plant’s bright and promising future.”About Bombardier Transportation Bombardier Transportation is a global leader in rail technology and offers the broadest portfolio in the industry. It covers the full spectrum of rail solutions, ranging from trains to sub-systems and signalling. The company also provides complete transport systems, e-mobility technology and maintenance services. As an innovation driver, Bombardier Transportation continuously breaks new ground in sustainable mobility. It provides integrated solutions that create substantial benefits for operators, passengers and the environment. Headquartered in Berlin, Germany, Bombardier Transportation employs around 39,850 people and its products and services operate in over 60 countries.About Bombardier With over 69,500 employees across four business segments, Bombardier is a global leader in the transportation industry, creating innovative and game-changing planes and trains. Our products and services provide world-class transportation experiences that set new standards in passenger comfort, energy efficiency, reliability and safety.Headquartered in Montreal, Canada, Bombardier has production and engineering sites in 28 countries across the segments of Transportation, Business Aircraft, Commercial Aircraft and Aerostructures and Engineering Services. Bombardier shares are traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange (BBD). In the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, Bombardier posted revenues of $16.2 billion US. News and information are available at bombardier.com or follow us on Twitter @Bombardier.Notes to Editors To receive our press releases, please visit the RSS Feed section.Bombardier is a trademark of Bombardier Inc. or its subsidiaries. For Information  Andreas Dienemann Director Communications, Germany +49 3302 89-4260 andreas.dienemann@rail.bombardier.com    Group Media Relations+49 30 98607 1687 press@rail.bombardier.comYou can also contact one of our worldwide contacts for specific press inquiries.
Logo: PSP Investments (CNW Group/PSP Investments)
MONTRÉAL, June 12, 2018 /PRNewswire/ - The Public Sector Pension Investment Board (PSP Investments) announced today that it ended its fiscal year March 31, 2018 with net assets of $153.0 billion, compared to $135.6 billion the previous fiscal year, an increase of 12.9%. The investment manager reported a one-year total portfolio net return of 9.8% on its investments and generated $13.5 billion of net income, net of all PSP costs. This return is significantly greater than the Policy Portfolio benchmark return of 8.7%.
Logo: PSP Investments (CNW Group/PSP Investments)
MONTRÉAL, June 12, 2018 /CNW Telbec/ - The Public Sector Pension Investment Board (PSP Investments) announced today that it ended its fiscal year March 31, 2018 with net assets of $153.0 billion, compared to $135.6 billion the previous fiscal year, an increase of 12.9%. The investment manager reported a one-year total portfolio net return of 9.8% on its investments and generated $13.5 billion of net income, net of all PSP costs. This return is significantly greater than the Policy Portfolio benchmark return of 8.7%.
GreenSpace Brands Inc. (CNW Group/GreenSpace Brands Inc.)
TORONTO, June 7, 2018 /CNW/ - GreenSpace Brands Inc. ("GreenSpace" or "the Company") (TSXV: JTR) today announced that it will hold its fourth quarter and fiscal year 2018 conference call on Thursday, June 21, 2018 at 8:30 am (ET).
Roots Corporation (CNW Group/Roots Corporation)
Roots Reports First Quarter Fiscal 2018 Results
Growth across retail stores and e-Commerce drives 9% increase in Direct-to-Consumer sales TORONTO, June 13, 2018 /CNW/ - Roots ("Roots," "Roots Canada" or the "Company") (TSX: ROOT), the premium lifestyle brand with a rich heritage and portfolio of apparel, hand crafted leather goods, footwear, and accessories, today announced its financial results for the first quarter ended May 5, 2018 ("Q1 2018"). All financial results are reported in Canadian dollars unless otherwise stated. Certain metrics, including those expressed on an adjusted or comparable basis, are non-IFRS measures. See "Non-IFRS Measures and Industry Metrics" below. First Quarter Fiscal 2018 Highlights Total sales increased 5.8% to $51.0 million compared to first quarter Fiscal 2017 ("Q1 2017") Direct to Consumer ("DTC") sales increased 9.0% to $44.2 million compared to Q1 2017 Comparable Sales Growth of 6.4% Gross margin expanded to 57.0% from 53.8% in Q1 2017 DTC Gross Margin increased 271 basis points to 59.1% from 56.4% in Q1 2017 Selling, general and administrative expenses increased 12.3% to $35.3 million compared to Q1 2017 Adjusted EBITDA was ($3.1) million compared to ($1.7) million in Q1 2017 Basic Loss Per Share was $0.13 per share compared to $0.12 per share in Q1 2017, and Adjusted Net Loss Per Share was $0.11 compared to $0.09 per share in Q1 2017 Opened two new corporate retail stores and renovated one store in North America, ending the quarter with 120 stores Opened two partner-operated stores in Taiwan to end the quarter with 30 stores in China and 112 stores in Taiwan, representing a total net addition of 10 stores compared to Q1 2017 "During the quarter, we continued to deliver on our strategic growth initiatives, which translated into accelerated Comparable Sales Growth of 6.4% versus 3.3% in Q1 2017, and a 9% increase in total Direct-to-Consumer sales," said Jim Gabel, President and Chief Executive Officer of Roots. "Our top-line improvements reflect retail store and e-Commerce sales growth, highlighting the strength of our brand, the consumers' response to our new products and our success in leveraging our position as a leading omni-channel retailer. We also benefitted from the strategic expansion of our retail footprint. We added stores in Canada and internationally, while also preparing for the opening of our brand activation centre and two new retail locations in the Boston market in the coming weeks and our Washington area stores in August. Further operating efficiencies, realized through our United Brand Range initiative, drove significant gross margin improvement, and our strategic investments in the business better position us for long-term success. As we look to the remainder of Fiscal 2018, we are confident in our ability to deliver continued growth and believe we remain on-track to achieve our Fiscal 2019 financial targets." Summary of First Quarter Fiscal 2018 Financial Results SalesTotal Q1 2018 sales increased 5.8% to $51.0 million from $48.2 million in Q1 2017. Sales in the DTC segment (corporate retail store and e-Commerce sales) increased 9.0% to $44.2 million compared to $40.5 million in Q1 2017. The year-over-year improvement in DTC sales was largely driven by Comparable Sales Growth of 6.4%, the opening of two net new corporate retail stores, as well as the renovation of two stores and renovation and expansion of three stores, since Q1 2017. Roots believes that both DTC sales and Comparable Sales Growth for the quarter would have been even higher, had the Company not faced a major ice storm across approximately 80% of its store network during the Company's semi-annual, four-day Customer Appreciation Event, the primary marketing and consumer event for the first half of the year. Sales in the Partners and Other segment (wholesale Roots-branded products, royalties on partner retail sales, licensing to select manufacturing partners and the sale of certain custom Roots-branded products) for Q1 2018 were $6.9 million, representing an 11.0% decrease compared to $7.7 million in Q1 2017, largely reflecting the timing of certain sales to the Company's operating partner in Asia, which shifts into Q2 2018. Gross ProfitTotal gross profit for Q1 2018 increased 12.0% to $29.1 million from $26.0 million in Q1 2017. Q1 2018 gross profit in the DTC segment increased 14.3% to $26.1 million, from $22.8 million in Q1 2017. Q1 2018 DTC Gross Margin was 59.1%, up 271 basis points from a Q1 2017 DTC Gross Margin of 56.4%. Year-over-year gross margin improvements primarily reflect the benefits of the Company's merchandising initiatives, including the two-year implementation of the United Brand Range, that are driving lower costs and facilitating more full-priced selling. Gross profit in the Partners and Other segment was $3.0 million, a 4.7% decrease from $3.1 million in Q1 2017, largely reflecting the timing of certain sales to the Company's Asian partner, which Roots expects to shift into Q2 2018. Selling, general and administrative expenses Selling, general and administrative expenses for Q1 2018 were $35.3 million, up 12.3% compared to $31.4 million in Q1 2017. The year-over-year increase was primarily driven by incremental costs to support higher sales and strategic investments to drive the growth of the business. Year-over-year, marketing expense increased $0.7 million, the minimum wage increase in Ontario and Alberta accounted for an additional $0.4 million and public company costs were an incremental $0.4 million. Adjusted EBITDA, Net Income & Adjusted Net IncomeReflecting the Company's sales growth and margin improvements, offset by increased strategic investments in the business, Adjusted EBITDA was ($3.1) million compared to ($1.7) million in Q1 2017. Net loss was $5.6 million, or $0.13 per share, compared to $5.1 million, or $0.12 per share, in Q1 2017. Adjusted Net Loss was $4.5 million, or $0.11 per share, compared to $3.6 million, or $0.09 per share, in Q1 2017.  As a result of fewer non-deductible expenses, the Company's effective tax rate was 24.3% for Q1 2018, as compared to 25.5% in Q1 2017. In the quarter, the Company also recorded an income tax recovery of $1.8 million, up from $1.7 million in Q1 2017. Outlook New Integrated Distribution CentreAs previously announced, Roots plans to integrate its retail store distribution and third-party e-Commerce fulfillment by moving into a new, larger, and technologically enhanced Distribution Centre. The Company expects the new facility to be up and running by mid-2019. Roots expects to make capital investments related to the facility of approximately $16.0 million through the end of Fiscal 2019, with the Company anticipating distribution centre-related cost per unit savings ("CPU") as a result of operating efficiencies and the benefits of integrating to one inventory. The Company expects these saving to be 20% or more, based on Fiscal 2020 CPU estimates, and expects to start recognizing the anticipated efficiencies and benefits, along with the associated CPU savings, in Fiscal 2020 and beyond. Fiscal 2019 TargetsWith the Company's continued foundation building work through Fiscal 2018, Roots expects its growth to align with its stated Fiscal 2019 targets. Management remains confident the Company is on track to achieve the following targets for Fiscal 2019: Sales of $410.0 million to $450.0 million Adjusted EBITDA of $61.0 million to $68.0 million Adjusted Net Income of $35.0 million to $40.0 million Conference Call and Webcast InformationRoots will hold a conference call to discuss the Company's first quarter Fiscal 2018 financial results on June 13, 2018, at 8:00 a.m. ET. All interested parties can join the call by dialing 647-427-7450 or 1-888-231-8191 and using conference ID: 1083538. Please dial-in 15 minutes prior to the call to secure a line. The conference call will be archived for replay until June 20, 2018, at midnight and can be accessed by dialing 416-849-0833 or 1-855-859-2056 and entering replay passcode 1083538. A live audio webcast of the conference call will be available on the Events and Presentations section of the Company's investor website at http://investors.roots.com or by following the link here. Please connect at least 15 minutes prior to the conference call to ensure adequate time for any software download that may be required to join the webcast. An archived replay of the webcast will be available on the Company's website for one-year. See Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements For the 13-week periods ended May 5, 2018 and April 29, 2017 and the Company's Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for the First Quarter Ended May 5, 2018 on the Company's investor website at http://investors.roots.com and on SEDAR at www.SEDAR.com About RootsEstablished in 1973, Roots is an iconic Canadian lifestyle brand with a rich heritage and portfolio of premium apparel, leather goods, accessories and footwear. Roots delivers products to customers through its store network, online platform and international partnerships. As of May 5, 2018, Roots integrated omni-channel footprint included 117 company retail stores in Canada, three company retail stores in the United States, 112 partner-operated stores in Taiwan, 30 partner-operated stores in China and a global e-commerce platform. Roots Corporation is a Canadian corporation doing business as "Roots" and "Roots Canada". Non-IFRS Measures and Industry MetricsThis press release makes reference to certain non-IFRS measures including certain metrics specific to the industry in which we operate. These measures are not recognized measures under IFRS, do not have a standardized meaning prescribed by IFRS and, therefore, may not be comparable to similar measures presented by other companies. Rather, these measures are provided as additional information to complement those IFRS measures by providing further understanding of our results of operations from management's perspective. Accordingly, these measures are not intended to represent, and should not be considered as alternatives to net income or other performance measures derived in accordance with IFRS as measures of operating performance or operating cash flows or as a measure of liquidity. In addition to our results determined in accordance with IFRS, we use non-IFRS measures including EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income (Loss), and Adjusted Net Income (Loss) per Share. This press release also refers to Comparable Sales Growth, a commonly used metric in our industry but that may be calculated differently compared to other companies. We believe these non-IFRS measures and industry metrics provide useful information to both management and investors in measuring our financial performance and condition and highlight trends in our core business that may not otherwise be apparent when relying solely on IFRS measures. Definitions and reconciliations of non-IFRS measures to the relevant reported measures can be found in our MD&A under "Cautionary Note Regarding Non-IFRS Measures and Industry Metrics", which is available on SEDAR at www.sedar.com or the Company's Investor Relations website at https://investors.roots.com. Forward-Looking InformationCertain information in this press release contains forward-looking information. This information is based on management's reasonable assumptions and beliefs in light of the information currently available to us and are made as of the date of this press release. Actual results and the timing of events may differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking information as a result of various factors. Information regarding our expectations of future results, performance, achievements, prospects or opportunities or the markets in which we operate is forward-looking information. Statements containing forward-looking information are not facts but instead represent management's expectations, estimates and projections regarding future events or circumstances. Many factors could cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements or future events or developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. See "Forward-Looking Information" and "Risk Factors" in the Company's Annual Information Form for the fiscal year ended February 3, 2018 for a discussion of the uncertainties, risks and assumptions associated with these statements. Readers are urged to consider the uncertainties, risks and assumptions carefully in evaluating the forward-looking information and are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such information. We have no intention and undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable securities law. ROOTS CORPORATION Interim Condensed Consolidated Statement of Financial Position (In thousands of Canadian dollars, except per share amounts) (Unaudited – See Notice to Reader in the Company's Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for the 13-week periods ended May 5, 2018 and April 29, 2017) As at May 5, 2018 As at February 3, 2018 Assets Current assets: Cash $ 2,891 $ 1,809 Accounts receivable 5,349 6,420 Inventories 39,331 35,407 Prepaid expenses 5,557 5,580 Derivative assets 1,199 – Total current assets 54,327 49,216 Non-current assets: Loan receivable 541 541 Fixed assets 40,330 36,981 Intangible assets 202,234 203,408 Goodwill 52,705 52,705 Total non-current assets 295,810 293,635 Total assets $ 350,137 $ 342,851 Liabilities and Shareholders' Equity Current liabilities: Bank indebtedness $ 4,837 $ – Accounts payable and accrued liabilities 19,192 18,306 Deferred revenue 4,166 4,647 Income taxes payable 3,309 6,589 Current portion of long-term debt 4,984 4,984 Derivative obligations – 1,233 Total current liabilities 36,488 35,759 Non-current liabilities: Deferred tax liabilities 22,315 21,166 Deferred lease costs 4,698 4,815 Finance lease obligation 802 894 Long-term debt 88,383 79,481 Other non-current liabilities 1,674 1,763 Total non-current liabilities 117,872 108,119 Total liabilities 154,360 143,878 Shareholders' equity: Common shares 195,994 195,994 Contributed surplus 2,285 1,675 Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) 880 (904) Retained earnings (deficit) (3,382) 2,208 Total shareholders' equity 195,777 198,973 Total liabilities and shareholders' equity $ 350,137 $ 342,851   ROOTS CORPORATION Interim Condensed Consolidated Statement of Net Loss (In thousands of Canadian dollars, except per share amounts) (Unaudited – See Notice to Reader in the Company's Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for the 13-week periods ended May 5, 2018 and April 29, 2017) For the 13-week periods ended May 5, 2018 and April 29, 2017 May 5, 2018 April 29, 2017 (13 weeks) (13 weeks) Sales $ 51,029 $ 48,231 Cost of goods sold 21,959 22,273 Gross profit 29,070 25,958 Selling, general and administrative expenses 35,304 31,430 Loss before interest expense and income taxes recovery (6,234) (5,472) Interest expense 1,152 1,388 Loss before income taxes (7,386) (6,860) Income taxes recovery (1,796) (1,747) Net loss $ (5,590) $ (5,113) Basic and diluted loss per share $ (0.13) $ (0.12)   ROOTS CORPORATION Interim Condensed Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Loss (In thousands of Canadian dollars, except per share amounts) (Unaudited – See Notice to Reader in the Company's Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for the 13-week periods ended May 5, 2018 and April 29, 2017) For the 13-week periods ended May 5, 2018 and April 29, 2017 May 5, 2018 April 29, 2017 (13 weeks) (13 weeks) Net loss                                                                       $ (5,590) $ (5,113) Other comprehensive income, net of taxes: Items that may be subsequently reclassified to profit or loss: Effective portion of changes in fair  2,435 1,020 value of cash flow hedges Cost of hedging excluded from (14) (1) cash flow hedges Tax impact of cash flow hedges (645) (272) Total comprehensive loss $ (3,814) $ (4,366)   ROOTS CORPORATION Interim Condensed Consolidated Statement of Changes in Shareholders' Equity (In thousands of Canadian dollars, except per share amounts) (Unaudited – See Notice to Reader in the Company's Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for the 13-week periods ended May 5, 2018 and April 29, 2017) For the 13-week periods ended May 5, 2018 and April 29, 2017 May 5, 2018 (13 weeks) Share capital Contributed surplus Retainedearnings (deficit) Accumulated other comprehensiveincome (loss) Total Balance, February 4, 2018 $ 195,994 $ 1,675 $ 2,208 $     (904) $ 198,973 Net loss – – (5,590) – (5,590) Net gain from change  in fair value of cash flow hedges,  net of income taxes – – – 1,776 1,776 Transfer of realized loss on cash flow hedges to inventories, net of income taxes – – – 8 8 Share-based compensation – 610 – – 610 Balance, May 5, 2018 $ 195,994 $ 2,285 $ (3,382) $ 880 $ 195,777 April 29, 2017 (13 weeks) Share capital Contributed surplus Retainedearnings (deficit) Accumulatedothercomprehensiveincome Total Balance, January 29, 2017                    $ 195,994 $ 483 $ 4,707 $ – $ 201,184 Net loss – – (5,113) – (5,113) Net gain from change in fair value of cash flow hedges, net of income taxes – – – 747 747 Transfer of realized loss on cash flow hedges to inventories, net of income taxes – – – (3) (3) Distributions declared – – (20,000) – (20,000) Share-based compensation – 102 – – 102 Balance, April 29, 2017 $ 195,994 $ 585 $ (20,406) $ 744 $ 176,917   ROOTS CORPORATION Interim Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows (In thousands of Canadian dollars, except per share amounts) (Unaudited – See Notice to Reader in the Company's Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for the 13-week periods ended May 5, 2018 and April 29, 2017) For the 13-week periods ended May 5, 2018 and April 29, 2017 May 5, 2018 April 29, 2017 (13 weeks) (13 weeks) Cash provided by (used in): Operating activities: Net loss $ (5,590) $ (5,113) Items not involving cash: Depreciation and amortization 2,752 2,615 Share-based compensation expense 610 102 Deferred lease costs (recovery) (588) 281 Amortization of lease intangibles 136 257 Interest expense 1,152 1,388 Income taxes recovery (1,796) (1,747) Interest paid (1,011) (1,233) Taxes paid (982) (129) Change in non-cash operating working capital: Accounts receivable 1,071 (148) Inventories (3,924) 555 Prepaid expenses 23 (11) Accounts payable and accrued liabilities 886 (718) Deferred revenue (481) (499) (7,742) (4,400) Financing activities: Issuance of long-term debt 10,000 10,000 Long-term debt financing costs – (466) Repayment of long-term debt (1,246) (5,775) Finance lease payments (85) – 8,669 3,759 Investing activities: Additions to fixed assets (5,153) (2,110) Tenant allowance received 471 284 (4,682) (1,826) Decrease in cash (3,755) (2,467) Cash, beginning of period 1,809 25,257 Cash and bank indebtedness, end of period $ (1,946) $ 22,790   SOURCE Roots Corporation
Finance Attitude - 5 Key Factors to Consider When Choosing an Online Broker
/Lydia Wanjiru/ -- An online broker is quite essential for every investor. It is imperative to carry out a research to determine who an ideal online broker is. Here are a few factors to consider before you choose an online broker: 1.    Minimum Initial Investment Most brokerages set a minimum initial investment or money that has to be deposited into the account to start trading. You can pick the best brokerage in the industry but fail to meet their minimum investment requirement. It is therefore vital for an investor to find out whether the amount of capital they have is sufficient to trade with a particular broker.    
Finance Attitude - 4 Basic Guidelines Useful in Trading Binary Options
/Lydia Wanjiru/ -- A binary option is a financial option that is considered to be an asset-or-nothing option, because the payoff is either you get a fixed amount of compensation or nothing at all when the option expires. It is also referred to as all-or-nothing or fixed-return options (FROs) and provides access to commodities and foreign exchange, indices, and stocks. Binary options are based on a Yes or a No proposition about whether an underlying asset will be above or below a certain price at a certain time. If the trader believes that the asset price will be below a certain price, he sells the option and if he believes it will be above a certain price he buys the option.  
Finance Attitude - 5 Key Investing Stages To Help you Achieve Financial Freedom
Sept. 18, 2017 /Lydia Wanjiru/ -- If you want to succeed financially, you must invest. Plan your financial short-term and long-term goals and objectives. It is no brainer that every journey must have a destination. In your financial journey, you need to put into consideration a number of things to achieve your goals at the end of it. This guide will give you a number of steps to take to help you to achieve financial security.
Finance Attitude - 8 Common Types of Investment Risks
8 Common Types of Investment Risks
One of the biggest fears that engulf everybody when they think of investing is the loss of their hard-earned money. A risk is inevitable as every investment involves some degree of risk or taking some calculated risk. It is believed that the higher the risk the higher the returns. A risk is the level of uncertainty that a particular investment will gain if you invest in it or the level of a potential financial loss that you are likely to incur if you invest in a particular asset. Every investor should be concerned about the investment risk as much as they are concerned about the possibility of returns. Investing requires understanding the level of risks involved. Here are risks that every investor should be aware of: 1.    Business risk Any business is exposed to uncertainties due to the economic downturns. A stockholder invests in the business when they purchase a portion of ownership in a company and a bondholder lends money to a business. If the business does not grow or do well and becomes bankrupt and its assets are liquidated, the common stockholders are among the last to get the proceeds from the dissolution. The bondholders are paid first, then the preferred shareholders and the ordinary shareholder gets the balance or the leftover which can be almost to or nothing. If you purchase individual stocks, you get exposed to business-specific risk and this can be reduced through asset diversification or buying a put option. 2.    Market risk Market risk is also known as the systematic risk and affects all securities the same way. Market risk is caused by a factor that cannot be mitigated through diversification. 3.    Price Volatility risk The stock price fluctuates up and down due to factors of supply and demand which are influenced by factors such as economic changes, changes in the company management. One way to measure volatility is the use of a beta and can approximate particular security returns against the returns of a benchmark such as S&P 500. 4.    Inflation risk Inflation is the general upward movement of prices and reduces the investor purchasing power or the purchasing value of money. Inflation risk is caused by the decline in value of the stocks cash flow due to inflation or the chances that the cash flows from an investment will not be worth as much in the future. You can mitigate this risk by investing in inflation-protected securities such as inflation-indexed bonds or Treasury inflation-protected securities (TIPS). You can mitigate this type of risk through purchasing appreciable investments. 5.    Interest Rate risk Interest rate risk arises due to fluctuations in interest rates and thus mostly affects the bond owners. A bonds measure of the interest rate risk exposure is determined by how sensitive its price is to interest rate changes in the market. The sensitivity depends on the bonds time to maturity and the coupon rate of the bond. 6.    Liquidity risk Liquidity risk is the risk that arises due to inability to convert a security or a hard asset to cash when desired without loss in capital or income in the process because of limited opportunities. A good example is difficulties encountered when selling a real estate property at any given moment should an urgent need arise.  An individual investor, a company or a financial institution is thus incapable of meeting short-term financial obligations. 7.    Political/Social/Legislative risk These are risks that may occur due to the instability in the country due to the political environment, social changes or unfavorable government actions. 8.    Currency/Exchange risk This is a risk that an investor is exposed to due to changes in the price of the currency against another. Investors should take risks that they can afford and look for ways to mitigate the risk that their securities are exposed to.